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          10 clinical section                                                          DENTAL TECHNOLOGY, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2017


                                            CERAMIC LAYERING

                                                        GIUSEPPE ROMEO, MDT

          ABSTRACT                                                       surface texture.
          To perfectly replicate the natural look of the tooth the technicians  These differences require the dental ceramist to develop signifi-
          must often call upon their artistic abilities in order to reconstruct the  cant skill and in-depth knowledge of ceramic material to achieve the
          dental structures.                                             most natural-looking restorations.
            Elaborate stratification methods have been proposed by the most  Simulation of natural teeth cannot be implemented by using only
          distinguished ceramists around the world, but, this tecnique shows  three  or  four  ceramic  layers;  the  difficult  and  time  consuming
          the presence of two layers of translucent incisal walls and up of each  process  of  ceramic  stratification  requires  the  ceramist  to  expertly
          of them modifiers and colors are transferred and blended in harmo-  arrange many layers of ceramic materials.
          niusly via infiltration.                                         There  are  two  different  approches  to  the  ceramic  stratification
                                                                         process :
          CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE                                          1. Ordered Stratification: Ceramic is layered in a precise order
          The method presented is a rational and didactict adaptation of the  to simulate dental structure. The stratification process begins with
          dentoenamel layering found in nature, so the ceramist can expertly  opaque dentine, continues with dentin and finishes with enamel and
          arrange many layers of ceramic materials.                      transparent  layers.  The  effect  is  a  static  progression  from  a  high
            This procedure can be  used for every type of ceramic material as  degree of opacity internally to absence of opacity at the exterior. In
          veeners (on refractory or pressed ceramic), metal ceramic, pressed  this  consistent  and  orderly  stratification,  each  new  layer  is  less
          ceramic,  zirconia  ceramic,  alumina  ceramic,  lithium  disilicate  and  opaque than the underlying layer.
            Ceramic is widely acknowledged to be the most reliable material  2. Order disordered stratification: Ceramic is layered in more
          for  esthetics  and  functional  long  term  restorative  treatment.  nuanced fashion. The technician again starts with maximum opacity
          However this material does not posses the same characteristics as  at the interior and gradually introduces layers with different degrees
          natural teeth, exhibiting significant limitations in structure, color and  of opacity and  translucence.

          FIG 1: Opaque dentin layered over the metal copings that have been treated with opaque material  FIG 2: Dentine-type ceramic is layered over the opaque dentine

          FIG 3: Build up of the dentin layer is monitored with a silicone index of the wax pattern. In this  FIG 4: Completion of the incisal edge with alternating layers of translucent and enamel materials.
          way the operator is able to layer the dentin material to support the different enamel and
          translucent layers
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